“Sex does matter. It matters in ways that we did not expect. Undoubtedly it also matters in ways that we have not begun to imagine.” -Mary-Lou Pardue, PhD
Hormones act while the fetus is in the uterus to form the brain as that of a male or a female. The sense of what gender we are is indelible and fixed by the time of our birth. Gender identify cannot be established exclusively by sex of rearing.
Studies comparing pain in young men and young women show that women feel pain more intensely than men during their menstrual cycle.
Females are more likely to return to preinjury work levels after recovery from head injury faster than men.
Many drugs have different effects in men and women as a function of differences in body fat, rates of excretion by the kidney and metabolic processing in the liver. The menstrual cycle has an important impact on the effectiveness of some anticonvulsants and antidepressants in women.
The immune response of women is stronger and more effective than that of men. Bad reactions to immunization are more common in females. Males are more susceptible to infections by parasites, fungi, bacteria and viruses than women.
All cells have a full complement of chromosomes, including the sex chromosomes… Despite this, many investigators do not determine whether the cells they grow in tissue culture are male or female.
Women develop coronary heart disease about 10 years later than men and women’s risk is smaller.
However, in women, smoking promotes susceptibility to early menopause and to a number of diseases, including coronary heart disease. Diabetic women are significantly more likely to develop coronary artery disease than diabetic men.